Biologystudy of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. The modern tendency toward cross-disciplinary research and the unification of scientific knowledge and investigation from different fields has resulted in significant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines.
Teleological Notions in Biology
Modern principles of other fields— chemistrymedicineand physicsfor example—are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistrybiomedicine, and biophysics. Biology is a branch of science that deals with living organisms and their vital processes. Biology encompasses diverse fields, including botanyconservationecologyevolutiongeneticsmarine biologymedicinemicrobiologymolecular biologyphysiologyand zoology.
As a field of sciencebiology helps us understand the living world and the ways its many species including humans function, evolve, and interact. Advances in medicineagriculturebiotechnologyand many other areas of biology have brought improvements in the quality of life. Biology graduates can hold a wide range of jobs, some of which may require additional education. A person with a degree in biology could work in agriculturehealth care, biotechnologyeducation, environmental conservation, research, forensic sciencepolicy, science communication, and many other areas.
Biology is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study, though all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles. Thus, while it is custom to separate the study of plants botany from that of animals zoologyand the study of the structure of organisms morphology from that of function physiologyall living things share in common certain biological phenomena—for example, various means of reproductioncell divisionand the transmission of genetic material.
Biology is often approached on the basis of levels that deal with fundamental units of life. At the level of molecular biologyfor example, life is regarded as a manifestation of chemical and energy transformations that occur among the many chemical constituents that compose an organism. As a result of the development of increasingly powerful and precise laboratory instruments and techniques, it is possible to understand and define with high precision and accuracy not only the ultimate physiochemical organization ultrastructure of the molecules in living matter but also the way living matter reproduces at the molecular level.
Especially crucial to those advances was the rise of genomics in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Cell biology is the study of cells—the fundamental units of structure and function in living organisms.
Cells were first observed in the 17th century, when the compound microscope was invented. Before that time, the individual organism was studied as a whole in a field known as organismic biology; that area of research remains an important component of the biological sciences.
Population biology deals with groups or populations of organisms that inhabit a given area or region. Included at that level are studies of the roles that specific kinds of plants and animals play in the complex and self-perpetuating interrelationships that exist between the living and the nonliving world, as well as studies of the built-in controls that maintain those relationships naturally. Those broadly based levels— moleculescells, whole organisms, and populations—may be further subdivided for study, giving rise to specializations such as morphologytaxonomybiophysics, biochemistry, geneticsepigeneticsand ecology.
A field of biology may be especially concerned with the investigation of one kind of living thing—for example, the study of birds in ornithologythe study of fishes in ichthyologyor the study of microorganisms in microbiology.
As originally conceived by Bernard, homeostasis applied to the struggle of a single organism to survive. The concept was later extended to include any biological system from the cell to the entire biosphereall the areas of Earth inhabited by living things.
All living organisms, regardless of their uniqueness, have certain biological, chemical, and physical characteristics in common. All, for example, are composed of basic units known as cells and of the same chemical substances, which, when analyzed, exhibit noteworthy similarities, even in such disparate organisms as bacteria and humans.
Furthermore, since the action of any organism is determined by the manner in which its cells interact and since all cells interact in much the same way, the basic functioning of all organisms is also similar.
There is not only unity of basic living substance and functioning but also unity of origin of all living things. If, however, life originated on Earth more than once in the past, the fact that all organisms have a sameness of basic structure, compositionand function would seem to indicate that only one original type succeeded. A common origin of life would explain why in humans or bacteria—and in all forms of life in between—the same chemical substance, deoxyribonucleic acid DNAin the form of genes accounts for the ability of all living matter to replicate itself exactly and to transmit genetic information from parent to offspring.
Furthermore, the mechanisms for that transmittal follow a pattern that is the same in all organisms. Whenever a change in a gene a mutation occurs, there is a change of some kind in the organism that contains the gene.A collection of literary pieces, such as poems, short stories, or plays.Clasificados online usa
A miscellany, assortment, or catalog, as of complaints, comments, or ideas: "The Irish love their constitution for what it is: an anthology of the clerical-nationalist ideas of " Economist.
All rights reserved. See antho - -logy ]. Copyright, by Random House, Inc. See also books. See also christianity. Copyright The Gale Group, Inc. Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. Switch to new thesaurus. Based on WordNet 3. Anthologie Kranz. Mentioned in? References in classic literature? View in context. The present writer lived for some time within a short distance of his house, but found no opportunity to meet him until it became necessary to obtain his portrait for an anthology in course of publication.
In conclusion it may be worth while to add the graceful epigram of Alcaeus of Messene "Palatine Anthology ", vii View in context. After speaking with writers and community organisations for guidance, they decided to make the anthology an inclusive community-based project, which would encourage participants to work together as opposed to having one individual editor.
Writers uniting for Riot project. This textbook and anthology for undergraduate students in creative writing covers traditional and emerging approaches in short-form creative writing, such as the lyric essay, flash fiction, micro memoir, and prose poetry. This experience, which includes unique design, state-of-the-art amenities and strong customer service, is a big reason why Anthology won NAA's Excel Awards' Community of the Year.
Supermassive is the same developer of the hit "Until Dawn. The new anthology is a diverse selection of fiction, non-fiction, poetry and excerpts from published works, penned by the members of The Writers Group. An anthology of English poetry and prose, this year's Aleph Review also prominently features the work of a number of young and upcoming artists.
Second edition of 'The Aleph Review' launched in Lahore.How much is xcraft worth
Anthology Architecture and Design Festival brings together top architecture and design professionals from all over the world in search of developing an architecture that promotes a network of inclusive barrier-free spaces that engage communities and their people. The A-R Editions Online Music Anthology has now been available for at least seven years and continues to grow and develop. Dictionary browser? Full browser?Anthologiai were collections of small Greek poems and epigrams, because in Greek culture the flower symbolized the finer sentiments that only poetry can express.
Etymology: [Gr. An anthology is a collection of literary works chosen by the compiler.
It may be a collection of poems, short stories, plays, songs, or excerpts. In genre fiction anthology is used to categorize collections of shorter works such as short stories and short novels, usually collected into a single volume for publication. The complete collections of works are often called Complete Works or Opera Omnia.
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Wiktionary 0. Webster Dictionary 0. Freebase 0. Chambers 20th Century Dictionary 0. How to pronounce anthology? Alex US English. Daniel British.Rating turkish series this week
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How to say anthology in sign language? Popularity rank by frequency of use anthology Select another language:. Discuss these anthology definitions with the community: 0 Comments.The literary anthology it is a compilation of selected texts with a certain criterion.
The anthologies group works widely recognized for their contribution in the field of literature. The differentiating character of literary anthologies is the discrimination and selection of their content.
This selection is made based on the quality and the added value of the text. The anthologies may contain a collection of works by the same author, as well as may be classified according to a particular literary genre, such as: a poetic anthology or an anthology of fables. It is also possible to find an anthology of a very extensive work; that is, a selection of the most outstanding chapters of a large book.
An example of this is the work Arabian Nights. This compilation of oriental stories has been reproduced on multiple occasions in the form of an anthology, given the length of the original work. The anthologies are an elite selection that invites the reader to deepen their knowledge about a work or a literary genre in particular.
The selection criteria is to the taste of the anthologist; that is, of the person who compiles and publishes the anthology with the comments and appreciations that it considers pertinent. A literary anthology is a collection of texts that gather the best possible selection, according to the framework of choice; that is, if it is discriminated by author, genre or topic. Many anthologies include comments from who compiled the texts. With this, it is possible to outline the main ideas of each section, and even weave the wefts between the various texts that constitute the work.
The anthologies have a premeditated disposition, determined by the intentions of the anthologist. The criteria for ordering the content can be inductive, deductive or chronological, according to the collector's preferences.
The anthologies must be presented with a purely objective focus.
There are no interpretive barriers for this type of text selection; On the contrary, all ideas are welcome within the framework of critical analysis and impartiality.
The anthologies are intended to encourage the reader to deepen their knowledge of the subject, and generate a proper judgment on the author, literary genre or selected topic.
Sometimes, anthologies are made for teaching purposes. The professors in different academic levels rely on this type of compilations to guide their master classes, using the anthologies as reference texts. For example, an anthology of Pablo Neruda would be an excellent starting point to study the work of this outstanding Latin American poet, and to take a look at the best of his repertoire.
There is a great variety of literary anthologies. According to the trial of the anthologist, these can be:. It is common to find anthologies that list different stories among themselves, which makes it possible to read each of the stories independently. The anthologist usually selects some autonomous chapters of a novel, to shed light on the main plot and encourage reading of the original work. In this case it is essential to take care of the sequence of the narrated events, to maintain the interest of the reader throughout the anthology.
They can be classified according to the author, country or a particular time, depending on the focus of the collection. This type of anthology focuses on a topic and groups in its content the best texts essays, stories, articles, among others on this topic. The thematic anthologies are rich in a variety of styles, so the skill in the collection and the gearing of the texts that compose it is key.
They collect the best of the work of an author, which may imply the coexistence of several literary genres within the same anthology. They are arbitrary compilations to the taste of anthology. It can include a selection of texts without a defined classification, including a diversity of literary genres or themes, only to the taste of who makes the anthology.What is Biology?
This section details the name of the person who made the selection of texts, the title of the anthology, literary genre and the date of publication, among other information of interest. It details the location page number of each text, for its easy and quick location within the anthology. The anthologist must indicate the objective of the anthology, the selection criterion of the works and the contribution of the compilation.Biological anthropologyalso known as physical anthropologyis a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin ancestors, and related non-human primatesparticularly from an evolutionary perspective.
As a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. Biological Anthropology looks different today than it did even twenty years ago. The name is even relatively new, having been 'physical anthropology' for over a century, with some practitioners still applying that term.
However, if one traces the intellectual genealogy and the culture back to physical anthropology's beginnings—going further back than the existence of much of what we know now as the hominin fossil record—then history focuses in on the field's interest in human biological variation. Some editors, see below, have rooted the field even deeper than formal science. Attempts to study and classify human beings as living organisms date back to ancient Greece.
The Greek philosopher Plato c. In the s and s, physical anthropology was prominent in the debate about slaverywith the scientific, monogenist works of the British abolitionist James Cowles Prichard — opposing  those of the American polygenist Samuel George Morton — In the late 19th century, German-American anthropologist Franz Boas strongly impacted biological anthropology by emphasizing the influence of culture and experience on the human form.
His research showed that head shape was malleable to environmental and nutritional factors rather than a stable "racial" trait. In Sherwood Washburna former student of Hooton, introduced a "new physical anthropology.
Anthropology expanded to include paleoanthropology and primatology. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of DNA and the development of chronological dating methods opened doors to understanding human variation, both past and present, more accurately and in much greater detail. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Branch of anthropology that studies the physical development of the human species.
Primate skulls. From left to right: Human Chimpanzee Orangutan Macaque. Outline History. Archaeological Biological Cultural Linguistic Social.
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Social Cultural. Research framework. Key concepts. Key theories.In book publishingan anthology is a collection of literary works chosen by the compiler; it may be a collection of plays, poems, short stories, songs or excerpts by different authors.
Complete collections of works are often called " complete works " or " opera omnia " Latin equivalent.T12 reinforcement bar weight
Florilegiuma Latin derivative for a collection of flowers, was used in medieval Europe for an anthology of Latin proverbs and textual excerpts.
Shortly before anthology had entered the language, English had begun using florilegium as a word for such a collection. In East Asian tradition, an anthology was a recognized form of compilation of a given poetic form. It was assumed that there was a cyclic development: any particular form, say the tanka in Japanwould be introduced at one point in history, be explored by masters during a subsequent time, and finally be subject to popularisation and a certain dilution when it achieved widespread recognition.
In this model, which derives from Chinese tradition, the object of compiling an anthology was to preserve the best of a form, and cull the rest. In Malaysiaan anthology or antologi in Malay is a collection of syairsajak or modern proseprosesdrama scripts, and pantuns.
In the twentieth century, anthologies became an important part of poetry publishing for a number of reasons. For English poetrythe Georgian poetry series  was trend-setting; it showed the potential success of publishing an identifiable group of younger poets marked out as a 'generation'.
It was followed by numerous collections from the 'stable' of some literary editor, or collated from a given publication, or labelled in some fashion as 'poems of the year'. Academic publishing also followed suit, with the success of the Quiller-Couch Oxford Book of English Verse  encouraging other collections not limited to modern poetry. Since publishers generally found anthology publication a more flexible medium than the collection of a single poet's work, and indeed rang innumerable changes on the idea as a way of marketing poetry, publication in an anthology in the right company became at times a sought-after form of recognition for poets.
The self-definition of movements, dating back at least to Ezra Pound 's efforts on behalf of Imagismcould be linked on one front to the production of an anthology of the like-minded. Also, whilst not connected with poetry, publishers have produced collective works of fiction from a number of authors and used the term anthology to describe the collective nature of the text. Media related to Anthologies at Wikimedia Commons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Anthology disambiguation. Collection of creative works chosen by the compiler. Poetry portal. Malaysia Tatler.
Retrieved 7 January The New York Times. Georgian Poetry. The Literary Encyclopedia. Retrieved The Oxford Book of English Verse: - ". Archived from the original on November 4, Trilogy Tetralogy Pentalogy Hexalogy Heptalogy.The manifest appearance of function and purpose in living systems is responsible for the prevalence of apparently teleological explanations of organismic structure and behavior in biology.
Although the attribution of function and purpose to living systems is an ancient practice, teleological notions are largely considered ineliminable from modern biological sciences, such as evolutionary biology, genetics, medicine, ethology, and psychiatry, because they play an important explanatory role.
The chief function of the heart is the transmission and pumping of the blood through the arteries to the extremities of the body. Harvey [ 49]. The Predator Detection hypothesis remains the strongest candidate for the function of stotting [by gazelles]. Caro The geographic range of human malaria is much wider than the range of the sickle-cell gene. As it happens, other antimalarial genes take over the protective function of the sickle-cell gene in … other warm parts.
Diamond Despite the substantial amount of data we now have on theropod dinosaurs, more information is necessary in order to determine the likelihood that early feathers served an adaptive function in visual display as opposed to other proposed adaptive functions such as thermoregulation.
Dimond et al. The ubiquity of claims such as these raises the question: how should apparently teleological notions in biology be understood? Most post-Darwinian approaches attempt to naturalize teleology in biology, in opposition to nineteenth-century viewpoints which grounded it theologically.
Nevertheless, biologists and philosophers have continued to question the legitimacy of teleological notions in biology. For instance, Ernst Mayridentified four reasons why teleological notions remain controversial in biology, namely that they are:. The current philosophical literature offers both Darwinian and non-Darwinian accounts of teleology in biology that aim to avoid these concerns. We primarily focus on naturalistic accounts of biological function, since this is where we see the most lively and productive current debates see, e.
We also briefly discuss the notion of goal-directedness in section 2. The discussion about biological teleology has ancient origins. The goal toward which all things, including living beings, are directed is the external and eternal good of the Forms. In contrast, on the Aristotelian view, the teleology that directs the behavior of living beings is immanent. For instance, in organismal development, the impetus for this goal-directed process is a principle of change within the organism, and the telosor goal, of the development is also an inherent property.
Although often conflated, the views of Plato and Aristotle on teleology have been influential in historical debates on biological teleology, and one can still find Platonic and Aristotelian ideas in the current debate on biological functions.
In addition to its role within ancient philosophy and cosmology, teleology has long been an important topic within physiology and medicine. For Galen, a teleological account of parts is superior to a purely causal-mechanical one, since the function or purpose of the part plays an ineliminable role in the explanation of the part and its activities. This Galenic view of anatomy, with its explicitly Aristotelian reliance on final causes, largely dominated medical thought until the seventeenth century.
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